In this study the outcome of kidney transplantation in 20 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was evaluated. The characteristics and severity of the primary disease in these patients were not different from those commonly reported in patients with HUS. Eleven children developed ESRD immediately following HUS, in nine others temporary partial recovery of kidney function for 0.5-13.2 years was observed. Twenty-four grafts were transplanted in these 20 patients. Graft survival was no different from overall cadaver graft survival. In nine patients failure of the first kidney graft occurred, while the four second grafts were still functioning at the time of writing. Recurrence of HUS was suspected but not proven to be the cause of first graft failure in two patients, and impaired graft function in a third one. A short interval between HUS and kidney transplantation seems to adversely affect graft survival. No other factors influencing outcome of transplantation could be detected.