Social behaviour: genes, ecology and evolution pages:132-164
Over the past decades much progress has been made in understanding the evolutionary factors that can promote social behaviour. Nevertheless, the bewildering range of methods that have been employed leave many confused. Here we review some of the major approaches that can be used to model social evolution, including the neighbourmodulated fitness, inclusive fitness and multilevel selection methods. Through examples we show how these different methodologies can yield complementary insight in the evolutionary causes of social behaviour, and how, for a wide range of problems, one method can be translated into the other, without affecting the final conclusion. We also review some recent developments, such as the evolution of cooperation in spatial settings and networks, and multilocus extensions of the theory, and discuss some remaining challenges in social evolution theory.