There is evidence that the diabetic intra-uterine environment has consequences for later life. Maternal diabetes mainly results in asymmetric macrosomia. This macrosomia is associated with an increased insulin secretion and overstimulation of the insulin producing B-cells during fetal life. In later life, a reduced insulin secretion is found. Intra-uterine growth restriction is present in severe maternal diabetes associated with vasculopathy. Intra-uterine growth restriction is associated with low insulin secretion and reduced development of the insulin receptors. In later life, these alterations can induce insulin resistance. The long-term consequences of an abnormal intra-uterine environment are of primary importance world-wide. Concentrated efforts are needed to explore how these long-term effects can be prevented.