Impacts of bleaching and packed column steam refining on cocoa butter properties
Ayala, Jose Vila × Calliauw, Gijs Foubert, Imogen Dewettinck, Koen Dyer, Bill De Greyt, Wim #
Journal of the american oil chemists society vol:84 issue:11 pages:1069-1077
Natural and alkalized cocoa butters were bleached and subsequently steam refined in a continuous packed column at temperatures ranging between 160 and 220 degrees C. None of the processes evaluated gave rise to any detectable formation of trans fatty acids, interesterification or polymerization. For the pressures and steam injection rates used, packed-column steam refining required a minimum temperature of 170 degrees C to achieve acceptable taste. Bleaching was highly effective in preventing darkening at high steam-refining temperatures, as well as in removing alkaloids, such as theobromine and caffeine, before steam refining. The impacts on the crystallization properties of cocoa butter were studied using DSC and P-NMR. The more significant changes in crystallization kinetics and equilibrium values can be reliably predicted on the basis of FFA removal from the butter.