Production of cocoa butter substitutes via two-stage static fractionation of palm kernel oil
Calliauw, Gijs × Foubert, Imogen De Greyt, Wim Dijckmans, Peggy Kellens, Marc Dewettinck, Koen #
Amer oil chemists soc a o c s press
Journal of the american oil chemists society vol:82 issue:11 pages:783-789
As are traditional fractionation technologies, static dry fractionation is a highly reliable technology for the consistent production of good-quality palm kernel stearin (PKS) for use as cocoa butter substitute (CBS) after total hydrogenation. A new process route now permits the production of unhardened yet high-quality CBS. Also an increase in total stearin yield can be achieved, via a successful refractionation of palm kernel olein. DSC analysis together with pilot static fractionation trials on the palm kernel olein indicates that a cooling water temperature that is too low (e.g., 17 degrees C) may result in the quick formation of unstable crystals that are possibly later converted to a more stable form. The resulting mixture of crystals with a possibly different polymorphic structure is easily squeezed through the filter cloth during filtration, whereas a slower, but more homogeneous co-crystallization occurs at higher temperature (18 degrees C or higher) and results in a much more stress-resistant slurry. Polarized light microscopy analysis confirmed that crystal size is not the only determining factor for a successful filtration. The total two-stage static fractionation of palm kernel oil (PKO) [iodine value (IV) 18] on a pilot scale results in the following three end products: PIKS IV 5 (yield: 29%, for direct use as CBS), PK olein IV 27 (yield: 58%), and PIKS IV 7 (yield: 13% for use as CBS after full hydrogenation). The unhardened PKS IV 5 has outstanding melting and crystallization properties, comparable to traditional hydrogenated stearin fractions. Therefore, rather than the higher stearin yield, the reduced hydrogenation capacity is most probably the most important benefit of the two-stage static fractionation process.