American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology vol:276 issue:1 pages:G303-G310
The ability of neuropeptides to modulate enteric smooth muscle proliferation was examined in primary explant cultures of rabbit gastric antrum and colon smooth muscle. Cell proliferation was determined by [H-3]thymidine incorporation measurements and cell counting. Subcultured rabbit antrum and colon myocytes (passages 2-6) preserved a smooth muscle phenotype, as verified by immunohistochemistry for a-smooth muscle act;in and electron microscopy. Both vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-(1-38) [PACAP-(1-38)] concentration dependently(10(-10) to 10(-6) M) inhibited the serum-induced [H-3]thymidine incorporation [in colon, 48.2 +/- 5.8 and 55.6 +/- 9.3% of control with 10(-6) M VIP and 10(-7) M. PACAP-(1-38)] and inhibited increase in cell numbers in cultures derived from the colon but not in those from the antrum. Effects of VIP and PACAP-(1-38) were mimicked by forskolin (10(-7) to 10(-6) M) but not by 8-bromo-cGMP, whereas theophylline enhanced the effects of VIP. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with N-G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-3.5) M) did not alter the effects of VIP. Substance P, motilin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and somatostatin had no effect. A single class of I-125-labeled VIP binding sites was found in antrum and colon myocyte cultures with an equal affinity for VIP and PACAP-(1-38) [dissociation constant (K-d) in antrum = 3.4 +/- 0.8 nM for VIP and 2.0 +/- 1.0 nM for PACAP-(1-38); Kd in colon = 2.0 +/- 1.0 nM for VIP and 2.8 +/- 1.6 nM for PACAP-(1-38)]. Density of binding sites in the antrum was higher than in the colon. In disease states such as inflammatory bowel disease, inhibition of myocyte proliferation by VIP and PACAP may serve to control smooth muscle hyperplasia in the colon but not in the antrum.