Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease vol:16 issue:5 pages:813-20
The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein (CDG) syndromes are a newly recognized family of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance. The basic defects are probably in the glycosylation pathway (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus or post-Golgi). In the present state of our knowledge the central nervous system is always severely affected but nearly all other organs are involved to a variable degree. Like the peroxisomal disorders they also comprise dysmorphic features, the most typical being an abnormal distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue. A reliable diagnostic test is isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin showing a cathodal shift as a consequence of the partial sialic acid deficiency. Prenatal diagnosis and heterozygote detection are not yet available. These diseases should be differentiated from secondary CDG syndromes such as classical galactosaemia.