Cell migration relies on a tight temporal and spatial regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). [Ca2+]i in turn depends on Ca2+ influx via channels in the plasma membrane whose molecular nature is still largely unknown for migrating cells. A mechanosensitive component of the Ca2+ influx pathway was suggested. We show here that the capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, that plays an important role in pain transduction, is one of the Ca2+ influx channels involved in cell migration. Activating TRPV1 channels with capsaicin leads to an acceleration of human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells pretreated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The speed rises by up to 50% and the displacement is doubled. Patch clamp experiments revealed the presence of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX)-sensitive currents. In contrast, HepG2 cells kept in the absence of HGF are not accelerated by capsaicin and express no capsaicin- or RTX-sensitive current. The TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine prevents the stimulation of migration and inhibits capsaicin-sensitive currents. Finally, we compared the contribution of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 channels to cell migration with that of mechanosensitive TRPV4 channels that are also expressed in HepG2 cells. A specific TRPV4 agonist, 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, does not increase the displacement. In summary, we assigned a novel role to capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 channels. They are important Ca2+ influx channels required for cell migration.