Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis vol:6 issue:11 pages:1884-91
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) play important roles in fibrinolysis. Both reduce plasmin generation, but they exert their antifibrinolytic effects via different mechanisms. This study reports the cloning and characterization of a heterodimer diabody that inhibits TAFI and PAI-1 simultaneously. METHODS AND RESULTS: The diabody was derived from two inhibiting monoclonal antibodies, i.e. MA-33H1F7, an anti-PAI-1 antibody that induces non-inhibitory substrate behavior of PAI-1, and MA-T12D11, an anti-TAFI antibody that inhibits activation of TAFI by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was derived from MA-T12D11 that displayed slightly reduced binding and inhibitory properties as compared to MA-T12D11. Characterization of the diabody revealed a similar affinity for TAFI and PAI-1 as that of the parental antibodies. Furthermore, the inhibitory properties of MA-33H1F7 and MA-T12D11 were fully preserved in the diabody format. In platelet-free plasma (PFP) clots, addition of the diabody had a stronger effect in shortening lysis times than either MA-T12D11 or MA-33H1F7. A similar reduction in clot lysis time was observed in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots. The same effect on clot lysis times in PFP and PRP was also achieved by the combined addition of MA-T12D11 and MA-33H1F7. The lysis rate of human model thrombi, made from whole blood, was approximately doubled after addition of the diabody. Moreover, this effect was significantly better than after the combined addition of the individual antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These observations demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of TAFI and PAI-1 results in faster lysis of the formed thrombus.