In vivo analysis of trophoblast cell invasion is highly dependent on histological techniques, which are amply described in standard textbooks. The emphasis of this chapter therefore lies on material collection and interpretation of tissue sections, rather than on histological techniques per se. Proper identification of vascular structures on placental bed histological sections is important, the more because invading trophoblastic cells induce significant structural changes in uterine blood vessels, which may be disturbed in complicated pregnancies. Guidelines for distinguishing several vascular structures are provided, and different approaches for qualitative and quantitative assessment of spiral artery changes are discussed. The purpose of such studies is not only to obtain a better insight into mechanisms of trophoblast invasion and associated maternal tissue changes, but also to understand placental bed defects in various pregnancy complications.