Cross-sectional associations were examined between pain catastrophizing and several health indices in 1,164 people with musculoskeletal pain from a Dutch community sample. Health indices included in the present study were specialist consultation, use of medication, and absenteeism or work disability. The results demonstrate that for people with a current episode of musculoskeletal pain, pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, and the presence of multiple pain locations were significantly associated with specialist consultation, use of pain medication, and absenteeism or work disability. The authors conclude that the role of pain itself has perhaps been underestimated in recent models of chronic pain-related disability. Some clinical implications and suggestions for further research are given.