The Clinical Journal of Pain vol:17 issue:2 pages:165-172
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to examine the relation between catastrophizing and pain intensity, pain-related disability, and psychological distress in a group of patients with chronic pain, controlling for the level of physical impairment. Furthermore, it was examined whether these relations are the same for three subgroups of chronic pain patients: those with chronic low back pain, those with chronic musculoskeletal pain other than low back pain, and those with miscellaneous chronic pain complaints, low back pain and musculoskeletal pain excluded. DESIGN: Correlational, cross-sectional. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Participants in this study were 211 consecutive referrals presenting to a university hospital pain management and research center, all of whom had a chronic pain problem. RESULTS: Overall, chronic pain patients who catastrophize reported more pain intensity, felt more disabled by their pain problem, and experienced more psychological distress. Regression analyses revealed that catastrophizing was a potent predictor of pain intensity, disability, and psychological distress, even when controlled for physical impairment. No fundamental differences between the three subgroups were found in this respect. Finally, it was demonstrated that there was no relation between physical impairment and catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that for different subgroups of chronic pain patients, catastrophizing plays a crucial role in the chronic pain experience, significantly contributing to the variance of pain intensity, pain-related disability, and psychological distress. These relations are not confounded by the level of physical impairment. Some clinical implications of the results are discussed. Finally, the authors concluded that these results support the validity of a cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of chronic pain-related disability.