Title: Intracellular metabolism and mechanism of anti-retrovirus action of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus compound
Authors: Balzarini, Jan ×
Hao, Z
Herdewijn, Piet
Johns, D G
De Clercq, Erik #
Issue Date: Feb-1991
Series Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol:88 issue:4 pages:1499-1503
Abstract: 9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of retrovirus (i.e., human immunodeficiency virus) replication in vitro and in vivo. Uptake of PMEA by human MT-4 cells and subsequent conversion to the mono- and diphosphorylated metabolites (PMEAp and PMEApp) are dose-dependent and occur proportionally with the initial extracellular PMEA concentrations. Adenylate kinase is unable to phosphorylate PMEA. However, 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate synthetase directly converts PMEA to PMEApp with a Km of 1.47 mM and a Vmax that is 150-fold lower than the Vmax for AMP. ATPase, 5'-phosphodiesterase, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase are able to dephosphorylate PMEApp to PMEAp, albeit to a much lower extent than the dephosphorylation of ATP. PMEApp has a relatively long intracellular half-life (16-18 hr) and has a much higher affinity for the human immunodeficiency virus-specified reverse transcriptase than for the cellular DNA polymerase alpha (Ki/Km: 0.01 and 0.60, respectively). PMEApp is at least as potent an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase as 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate. Being an alternative substrate to dATP, PMEApp acts as a potent DNA chain terminator, and this may explain its anti-retrovirus activity.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy (Rega Institute)
Medicinal Chemistry (Rega Institute)
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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