Title: Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification
Authors: Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ×
Kessler, Michael
Barkmann, Jan
Bos, Merijn M
Buchori, Damayanti
Erasmi, Stefan
Faust, Heiko
Gerold, Gerhard
Glenk, Klaus
Gradstein, S. Robbert
Guhardja, Edi
Harteveld, Marieke
Herteld, Dietrich
Hoehn, Patrick
Kappas, Martin
Koehler, Stefan
Leuschner, Christoph
Maertens, Miet
Marggraf, Rainer
Migge-Kleian, Sonja
Mogea, Johanis
Pitopang, Ramadhaniel
Schaefer, Matthias
Schwarze, Stefan
Sporn, Simone G
Steingrebe, Andrea
Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S
Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman
Twele, Andre
Weber, Robert
Woltmann, Lars
Zeller, Manfred
Tscharntke, Teja #
Issue Date: Mar-2007
Publisher: Natl acad sciences
Series Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol:104 issue:12 pages:4973-4978
Abstract: Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximate to 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximate to 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximate to 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Division of Bioeconomics
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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