Chronic pain syndromes such as chronic low back pain are responsible for enormous costs for health care and society. For these conditions a pure biomedical approach often proves insufficient. Numerous studies have shown that there is little direct relationship between pain and disability and suggest that the biopsychosocial approach offers the foundations for a better insight in how pain can become a persistent problem. The main assumption is that pain and pain disability are not only influenced by organic pathology, if found, but also by psychological and social factors. In this contribution, a behavioural analysis of chronic musculoskeletal pain will be discussed, with special attention to the role of pain-related fear in the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability, and the behavioural rehabilitation perspective of chronic pain management.