The current study aimed to measure the differential predictive value of implicit and explicit attitude measures on treatment behaviour of health care providers. Thirty-six physiotherapy students completed a measure of explicit treatment attitude (Pain Attitudes And Beliefs Scale For Physiotherapists-PABS-PT) and a measure of implicit treatment attitude (Extrinsic Affective Simon Task-EAST). Furthermore, they gave treatment recommendations for a patient simulating back pain on three video scenes. The implicit and explicit measures of attitudes were only weakly related to each other. However, both were differentially related to treatment recommendations. The implications of the differential predictive value of implicit and explicit attitude measures for treatment behaviour are discussed.