Sonoda, Koh-Hei × Nakamura, Takahiko Young, Howard A Hart, David Carmeliet, Peter Stein-Streilein, Joan #
Journal of Immunology vol:179 issue:4 pages:2215-22
In a model of peripheral tolerance called anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), the differentiation of the T regulatory cells depends on NKT cells and occurs in the spleen. In this study, we show that NKT cells that express the invariant (i) TCR and are the CD1d-reactive NKT cells (required for development of peripheral tolerance) actually produced urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) during tolerance induction. The RT-PCR and in vitro plasmin assay showed that splenic iNKT cells derived uPA-converted plasminogen to plasmin. Moreover, uPA was required for tolerance induction because uPA knockout (KO) mice did not develop peripheral tolerance or develop CD8(+) T regulatory cells after Ag inoculation into the anterior chamber. In contrast, other aspects of ACAID-induced tolerance, including recruitment of iNKT cells to the spleen and production of IL-10 by iNKT cells, were unchanged in uPA-deficient mice. The adoptive transfer of splenic NKT cells from wild-type mice restored ACAID in Jalpha18 KO mice (iNKT cell deficient), but NKT cells from uPA KO mice did not. We postulate that the mechanism of action of uPA is through its binding to the uPAR receptor, and enzymatic cleavage of plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn activates latent TGFbeta. In conclusion, uPA derived from iNKT cells is required to induce peripheral tolerance via the eye.