Fertility and Sterility vol:72 issue:6 pages:1134-41
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that diagnostic laparoscopy can cause pelviperitoneal inflammation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data collected during a prospective controlled study in baboons. SETTING: An academic research environment. ANIMAL(S): Samples were collected during laparoscopies in female baboons at the Institute of Primate Research, Kenya. INTERVENTION(S): In the first part of the study, 44 laparoscopies were performed in 16 baboons (5 with a normal pelvis, 11 with endometriosis) during the luteal phase, with a time interval of 1 month. In the second part of the study, 53 laparoscopies were performed in 15 baboons (6 with a normal pelvis, 9 with endometriosis) during the late follicular and luteal phases of one cycle, with a median time of 3-4 days between each laparoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Peritoneal fluid (PF) was measured and analyzed for white blood cell (WBC) concentrations and, in the second part of the study, for the distribution of lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20) and for the presence of cytokines transforming growth factor-beta1, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. RESULT(S): In the first part of the study, PF volumes and WBC concentrations were comparable at the baseline and follow-up laparoscopies. In the second part of the study, PF obtained at the second laparoscopy showed a 10-fold increase in volume, a 3-fold increase in WBC concentration, a 10-fold increase in IL-6 concentration, and a 2-fold increase in transforming growth factor-beta1 concentration when compared with PF obtained at the first laparoscopy. The PF subset of granulocytes and CD3-positive cells was higher and the PF subset of macrophages was lower at follow-up laparoscopies than at the baseline laparoscopy. CONCLUSION(S): Diagnostic laparoscopy can cause peritoneal inflammation in baboons.