This book challanges current views about the ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. This is the largest known corpus of Egyptian religious texts from the Middle Kingdom. These texts are usually dated to the First Intermediate Period and are considered characteristic for a so-called 'Democratisation' of religious texts that had before been exclusively reserved for royalty. This book shows firstly that the texts (at least in the form in which we know them from the sources) date to the Middle Kingdom rather than the First Intermediate Period. Secondly, an analysis of the archaeological contexts from which the coffins inscribed with Coffin Texts derive, leads to an analysis of the demographic background of the owners of these sources. Contrary to what is commonly believed, these people do not represent the population at large, but rather a small, mostly provincial high elite. The argument includes chapters addressing the administrative structure of the provinces; the spatial archaeology of the pertinent cemetery sites, and the social structure of the provincial regions in Middle Egypt. This is done mainly on the basis of study of the type site Dayr al-Barsha, which is currently being excavated by the author.