We examined the association among self-reported noncompliance and clinical status, symptomatology, functional activity, and psychological variables in asthma. Eighty-five asthmatics, who were hospitalized (H group), outpatients previously hospitalized (OH group), or outpatients not previously hospitalized (O group) completed questionnaires. Compliance was assessed during a structured interview. The higher prevalence of self-reported noncompliance in H group and OH group, compared to O group, was not explained by differences in respiratory function. Self-reported noncompliance was related to symptoms and emotional distress associated With disease and treatment, but not to functional or emotional status. A patient subgroup that catalogued itself as noncompliant may also be at risk for hospitalization, and Was characterized by emotional distress associated with disease and treatment.