ITEM METADATA RECORD
Title: Envisioning Eden: A glocal ethnography of tour guiding
Authors: Salazar, Noel B.
Issue Date: 21-May-2008
Abstract: Using international tourism as an analytical and ethnographic entry, this study explores the intricate ways in which local to global processes intersect, overlap, and clash. Destina-tions worldwide are adapting themselves to the homogenizing standards of global tour-ism while at the same time trying to maintain, or even increase, their local distinctiveness. Central to these deeply intertwined processes are tourism imaginaries, understood as rep-resentational systems that mediate reality and form identities, and their (re)production by local tour guides, key agents in the selling and telling of natural and cultural heritage. Drawing on 25 months of multi-sited and multi-temporal fieldwork in Yogyakarta, Indone-sia, and Arusha, Tanzania, this study addresses the following issues: (1) the representation of peoples and places in globally circulating tourism imaginaries; (2) the perceived, offi-cially sanctioned, and actual roles of local tour guides in this representational practice; (3) the formal schooling and informal learning of guides to appropriate images and dis-courses of tourism; (4) the (re)production and contestation of fashionable tourism imagery in guiding narratives and practices; and (5) the ways in which dominant imaginaries and personal imaginations of tourism stakeholders are (dis)connected. The methodology used, labeled as glocal ethnography, involves a mixed-methods approach including extensive observation, interviews, questionnaires, and the collection of secondary data. The com-parative and discourse-centered analysis of the data reveals how local guides in Yogya-karta and Arusha act as “mechanics of glocalization”, assuring the continued circulation and localization of tourism fantasies, but also using the encounter with foreigners to fo-ment their own imaginations of “paradise on earth” and to accumulate cosmopolitan knowledge. These findings add not only to the current theorizing on tour guiding and tourism, they demonstrate the potential of glocal ethnography as a methodology to move global studies from mere description or critique to grounded holistic analyses that unravel the complex human mechanisms underlying processes of glocalization. The study’s focus on the human aspects of globalization, on cosmopolitanism, and on the role of the imagi-nary in giving people’s lives meaning, illustrates some creative ways in which anthropolo-gies of tourism and travel can contribute to ongoing theoretical and methodological debates about the local-to-global nexus.
Table of Contents: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IV
ABSTRACT VII
CHAPTER 1. ANTHROPOLOGY GOING GLOCAL: PREPARING THE ROADMAP 1
THE DAWN OF A JOURNEY 2
EXPLORING THE TERRAIN 5
FROM LOCAL TO LOCALIZATION 8
MOVING BEYOND THE BINARY 10
A WORLD OF IMAGINARIES 14
IMAGINARIES OF THE WORLD 19
PORTRAYING THE LOCAL 23
POINT OF DEPARTURE 26
GETTING IN MOTION 31
THE WAY TO FOLLOW 34
SITES TO SEE AND STUDY 38
FACTS AND FIGURES 42
TRAVEL ITINERARY 45
CHAPTER 2. WORLDS APART OR TOGETHER? TWO DESTINATIONS, ONE DESTINY 47
PICTURING PARADISE 49
TURNING WATER INTO BLOOD 53
COMPETING MYTHS AND TRUTHS 57
YOGYAKARTA, THE “CULTURAL HEART” OF JAVA 59
“JOGJA, NEVER ENDING ASIA” 64
TRADING TRADITION 69
AN ORIENTAL ARCHIPELAGO 72
ARUSHA, THE “SAFARI CAPITAL” OF TANZANIA 74
“ARUSHA, THE CENTER OF AFRICA” 79
INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION 83
SAFARI DREAMS 87
BACK TO REALITY 91
CHAPTER 3. THE SHIFTING ROLES AND RULES OF LOCAL TOUR GUIDING 94
A POCKET GUIDE TO GUIDING 95
SPOT THE DIFFERENCES 99
THE SCHOLAR’S STANCE 102
MEDIATION, REGULATION, AND GLOCALIZATION 105
ARUSHA-STYLE GUIDING 110
A NEW CALLING IN THE WILD 110
STANDARDIZING THE PROFESSION 113
TANZANIAN TOUR GUIDES, UNITE! 118
GUIDING À LA JOGJA 121
FROM NATIONAL TO LOCAL POLITICS OF REGULATION 122
“MAS GAID” AND THE BIRD OF PARADISE 127
THE TEETHING TROUBLES OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY 130
MIRRORING MERCURY? 134
CHAPTER 4. “SEDUCATION”, OR LEARNING THE ART OF TELLING TOURISM TALES 140
GLOBAL TOURISM DISCOURSES 143
THE RHETORIC OF INTERPRETATION 146
TOUR GUIDE INSTRUCTION À LA JAVANAISE 153
ACCORDING TO THE BOOK 156
“IT’S LIKE CLIMBING A TREE” 160
ARUSHA’S LABYRINTH OF TOUR GUIDE TRAINING 166
A MODEL SCHOOL 171
“ARISTOTLE? A ROMAN GUY OR SOMETHING” 176
THE TRANSNATIONAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE 180
IMPERSONATING THE “BULE” 182
ME AND MY “MZUNGU” 184
TRAVELING TOURISM TALES 188
CHAPTER 5. ON TOUR: IMAGING AND IMAGINING OTHER WORLDS 194
FRAMING THE GUIDE-GUEST ENCOUNTER 197
NARRATIVE PERFORMANCE 198
TOURING LANGUAGES 200
THE SUPREMACY OF THE EXOTIC 205
JAVA’S EROTIC EDEN 206
NORTHERN TANZANIA’S ECOLOGICAL PARADISE 209
THE WORLDLY TOOLS OF THE MECHANIC 213
FOREIGN FRAMES OF REFERENCE 214
SUPRALOCAL LEGITIMACY 222
THE OTHER AND ME 226
WHOSE CULTURE? 227
LIMINAL POSITIONALITY 233
THE COSMOPOLITAN EDGE 238
CHAPTER 6. DISCORD AND DISASTER: WHEN FANTASY MEETS REALITY 243
AN EXCURSION INTO POWER 244
RESISTANCE AND AGENCY 245
IMAGINARY CONTROL 249
COMMENTARY AS CRITIQUE 253
NEVER SAY THE P-WORD 254
SACRILEGE 256
HIDING HARDSHIP 261
THE BLAME GAME 264
SCAPEGOATS AND BLACK SHEEP 264
YOU STUPID TOURIST! 267
THE NATIVE’S POINT OF VIEW 269
MISREPRESENTING MAASAI 271
LOCAL IMAGINATIONS 276
WHEN TRAGEDY STRIKES 279
ALL-INCLUSIVE CATASTROPHE 280
ENDANGERED SPECIES 285
THE CLASH OF IMAGINARIES 288
CHAPTER 7. COMING HOME 293
GLOCALIZATION’S FINEST METAPHOR 294
IMAGE THE LOCAL, IMAGINE THE GLOBAL 298
ANOTHER WORLD IS POSSIBLE 304
IMAGINE ALL THE PEOPLE, LIVING FOR TODAY 306
ANTHROPOLOGIES OF THE NEAR-PRESENT 310
DECAPITALIZING THE “OTHER” 313
THE TENTATIVE END OF A JOURNEY 316
CODA 318
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY 321
APPENDIX B. ABBREVIATIONS 324
BIBLIOGRAPHY 325
INDEX 354
URI: 
ISBN: 978-0549803850
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Interculturalism, Migration and Minorities Research Centre

Files in This Item:

There are no files associated with this item.

Request a copy

 




All items in Lirias are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.