Journal of dairy research vol:70 issue:2 pages:217-225
In the context of identifying intrinsic time temperature integrators (TTIs) for evaluating thermal processing of milk, the possible influence of seasonal variation in milk composition on the applicability of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), lactulose and furosine for process impact assessment was studied. Hereto inactivation and formation kinetics of these indicators were analysed in milk samples collected over a one year period. Based on previous research (isothermal and non-isothermal heating conditions) it was assumed that thermal inactivation of ALP followed first order kinetics, and formation of HMF, lactulose and furosine could be described by pseudo-zero order kinetics. This allowed the use of a simplified experimental design to obtain the kinetic parameters. Based on 90% joint confidence regions, kinetic parameter values differed significantly between different batches of milk for all four indicators. Additionally, variable ALP activities and HMF concentrations were observed in the raw milk samples. Nevertheless, the observed differences did not seem to restrict the applicability of the selected TTIs as illustrated by the construction of temperature time tolerance (TTT-) diagrams. Through these diagrams, use of the TTIs implied an uncertainty of approximately 2 degreesC between equivalent processes.