Journal of dairy research vol:70 issue:1 pages:85-90
In the context of the general applicability of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), lactulose and furosine as time-temperature integrators (TTls) for thermal processing of milk, the influence of milk fat content was studied. Formation kinetics were analysed for milk with fat content of 4.0+/- <0.1%. In previous experiments, it was observed that, under isothermal and non-isothermal heating conditions, formation of the three chemical compounds could be described by pseudo-zero order kinetics. Since the kinetic model was known, the experimental design could be simplified. Data were analysed by a non-linear regression procedure and results were evaluated by construction of joint confidence regions and temperature time tolerance (TTT-) diagrams. Formation kinetics of HMF and lactulose was not affected by milk fat content. Regarding furosine, significant differences were observed between kinetic parameters in whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed milk. The observed differences however were negligible in the context of process impact evaluation.