Giddens’ structuration theory is a widely appreciated attempt to bridge the old dualism between ‘agency’ and ‘structure’ in sociology. Theoretically, this theory has brought about an enormous amount of reactions. However, the question of the relevance of the theory to empirical research has been neglected thus far in the critical evaluation of Giddens’ work. This question is the focus of this paper. First we examine Giddens’ theoretical views and those of his critics on this subject. Furthermore, the paper discusses three empirical researches from different disciplines inspired by structuration theory. Based on this information the pro’s and contra’s of structuration theory in the light of empirical research are summarized.