Learning is critical for fast and efficient object recognition in primates. To understand the neuronal correlates of behavioral improvements due to training, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys that were trained to recognize briefly presented, backward-masked objects. First we investigated training effects that are specific to the objects shown during training and that do not transfer to untrained objects. Only one of two monkeys tested showed object-specific training effects at the behavioral level, and only this monkey showed a transient object-specific increase in object selectivity for trained compared with untrained backward-masked objects. However, in each monkey a substantial part of the training effect transferred to untrained objects. To investigate the neural correlates of these object-independent training effects, we compared the neural responses to masked objects in trained monkeys to the responses in untrained monkeys. Training was associated with a reduction of the responses to the irrelevant masking patterns. These findings suggest that extensive training in recognizing backward-masked objects results in neural changes that reduce IT responses to the interfering irrelevant masking patterns and enhance the processing of the relevant objects.