The primary roles for nutrition in sprints are for recovery from training and competition and influencing training adaptations. Sprint success is determined largely by the power-to-mass ratio, so sprinters aim to increase muscle mass and power. However, extra mass that does not increase power may be detrimental. Energy and protein intake are important for increasing muscle mass. If energy balance is maintained, increased mass and strength are possible on a wide range of protein intakes, so energy intake is crucial. Most sprinters likely consume ample protein. The quantity of energy and protein intake necessary for optimal training adaptations depends on the individual athlete and training demands; specific recommendations for all sprinters are, at best, useless, and are potentially harmful. However, if carbohydrate and fat intake are sufficient to maintain energy levels, then increased protein intake is unlikely to be detrimental. The type and timing of protein intake and nutrients ingested concurrently must be considered when designing optimal nutritional strategies for increasing muscle mass and power. On race day, athletes should avoid foods that result in gastrointestinal discomfort, dehydration or sluggishness. Several supplements potentially influence sprint training or performance. Beta-alanine and bicarbonate may be useful as buffering agents in longer sprints. Creatine may be efficacious for increasing muscle mass and strength and perhaps increasing intensity of repeat sprint performance during training.