The worlds' current food production system is focused on a limited number of crops. However, international food demand is increasingly looking for more diversified supplies. In the Venezuelan State Amazonas, the Piaroa indigenous people collect and cultivate several indigenous species with local, regional, national and even international potential. A participatory approach was used to select, in cooperation with these Piaroa people, a list of products for in-depth economic analysis and for introduction in agroforestry trials in a later phase. Seven agroforestry food products of this list were identified as underutilized. Primary data collected through consumer and trader surveys on the local markets and participatory exercises in selected Piaroa communities revealed that the main causes of underutilization are the general lack of transport, processing and market infrastructure in Amazonas; the lack of demand, due to a lack of product information; the lack of market information and cooperation between the different market chain actors; and the low productivity of the traditional slash and burn plots. Solutions to overcome the infrastructural constraints are sought by looking at the example set by a local NGO.