Title: Drying of crystalline drug nanosuspensions - The importance of surface hydrophobicity on dissolution behavior upon redispersion
Authors: Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard ×
Froyen, Ludo
Van Humbeeck, Jan
Martens, Johan
Augustijns, Patrick
Van den Mooter, Guy #
Issue Date: Sep-2008
Publisher: Elsevier
Series Title: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences vol:35 issue:1-2 pages:127-135
Abstract: D-alpha-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized nanosuspensions (25 wt%, relative to the drug weight) were produced by media milling for 9 model drug compounds [cinnarizine, griseofulvin, indomethacin, itraconazole, loviride, mebendazole, naproxen, phenylbutazone and phenytoin]. After 3 months of storage at room temperature, Ostwald ripening occurred in all of the samples, except for indomethacin. Whereas lowering the temperature could slow down the ripening, it markedly increased upon storage at 40 degrees C. As for ripening, settling generally became more pronounced at 40 degrees C compared to 4 degrees C. As the nanosuspensions were afflicted by Ostwald ripening and settling, we explored nanosuspension drying as a strategy to circumvent these stability issues. Spray-drying and freeze-drying were evaluated for nanosuspensions and coarse reference suspensions of the compounds. Nanoparticle agglomeration could be visually observed in all of the powders. To evaluate the effect of agglomeration on the key characteristic of drug nanocrystals (i.e. rapid dissolution), dissolution experiments were performed under poor sink conditions. It was found that the compounds could be categorized into 3 groups: (i) compounds for which it was impossible to differentiate between coarse and nanosized products (griseofulvin, mebendazole, naproxen), (ii) compounds that gave clear differences in dissolution profiles between the nanosized and the coarse products, but for which drying of the nanosuspensions did not decrease the dissolution performance of the product (indomethacin, loviride, phenytoin) and (iii) compounds that showed differences between coarse and nanosized products, but for which drying of the nanosuspensions resulted in a significant decrease of the dissolution rate (cinnarizine, itraconazole, phenylbutazone). To gain insight on the influence of the drug compound characteristics on the dissolution of the dried products, the dissolution behavior of the compounds of the second and the third group was linked to the compound's characteristics. It was found that compounds with a more hydrophobic surface resulted in agglomerates which were harder to disintegrate, for which dissolution was compromised upon drying. The same was found for compounds having higher log P values. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0928-0987
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis
Drug Delivery and Disposition
Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Section (-)
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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