Medicinal Research Reviews vol:28 issue:6 pages:823-884
Picornaviruses cover a large family of pathogens that have a major impact on human but also on veterinary health. Although most infections in man subside mildly or asymptomatically, picornaviruses can also be responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. To date, no therapy has been approved for the treatment of picornavirus infections. However, efforts to develop an antiviral that is effective in treating picornavirus-associated diseases are ongoing. In 2007, Schering-Plough, under license of ViroPharma, completed a phase II clinical trial with Pleconaril, a drug that was originally rejected by the FDA after a New Drug Application in 2001. Rupintrivir, a rhinovirus protease inhibitor developed at Pfizer, reached clinical trials but was recently halted from further development. Finally, Biota's HRV drug BTA-798 is scheduled for phase II trials in 2008. Several key steps in the picornaviral replication cycle, involving structural as well as non-structural proteins, have been identified as valuable targets for inhibition. The current review aims to highlight the most important developments during the past decades in the search for antivirals against picornaviruses. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev.