Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing in chronic heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction: recommendations for performance and interpretation. Part I: definition of cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters for appropriate use in chronic heart failure
Piepoli, Massimo F × Corrà, Ugo Agostoni, Pier Giuseppe Belardinelli, Romualdo Cohen-Solal, Alain Hambrecht, Rainer Vanhees, Luc #
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation vol:13 issue:2 pages:150-64
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides a global assessment of the integrated response to exercise involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, haematopoietic, neuropsychological, and skeletal muscle systems. This information cannot be obtained through investigation of the individual organ systems in isolation. The non-invasive, dynamic physiological overview permits the evaluation of both submaximal and peak exercise responses, providing the physician with relevant information for clinical decision making. The use of CPET in management of the chronic heart failure patient is increasing with the understanding that resting pulmonary and cardiac function testing cannot reliably predict exercise performance and functional capacity and that, furthermore, overall health status and prognosis are predicted better by indices of exercise tolerance than by resting measurements. Our aim is to produce a statement which provides recommendations on the interpretation and clinical application of CPET in heart failure, based on contemporary scientific knowledge and technical advances: the focus is on clinical indications, issues of standardization, and interpretative strategies for CPET.