BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key components of stroke rehabilitation. Little is known about their content. This study aimed to define and compare the content of PT and OT for stroke patients between 4 European rehabilitation centers. METHODS: In each center, 15 individual PT and 15 OT sessions of patients fitting predetermined criteria were videotaped. The content was recorded using a list comprising 12 therapeutic categories. A generalized estimating equation model was fitted to the relative frequency of each category resulting in odds ratios. RESULTS: Comparison of PT and OT between centers revealed significant differences for only 2 of the 12 categories: ambulatory exercises and selective movements. Comparison of the 2 therapeutic disciplines on the pooled data of the 4 centers revealed that ambulatory exercises, transfers, exercises, and balance in standing and lying occurred significantly more often in PT sessions. Activities of daily living, domestic activities, leisure activities, and sensory, perceptual training, and cognition occurred significantly more often in OT sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the content of each therapeutic discipline was consistent between the 4 centers. PT and OT proved to be distinct professions with clear demarcation of roles.