Contemporary empirical studies in the domain of the political ideology of ordinary people owe much to the innovative intellectual power of Middendorp (1942-1995). He developed a rather full historically based conceptualisation and operationalisation of ideological stances. He argued that these stances emerge from fundamental underlying values like freedom and equality. Next, he showed that these stances relate to a wide range of contemporary and still controversial political issues, like civil liberties and governmental policies to redistribute scarce resources. Moreover, he advanced theoretical propositions regarding individual, social and contextual determinants of (longitudinal trends in) ideological stances as well as regarding the political consequences of these stances. These studies have been published widely and cited more than often in national and international journals. In this volume, the authors contribute to this theoretical and empirical tradition by replicating and innovating previous analyses as well as by filling theoretical and empirical lacunae by theoretical modelbuilding. This volume hence provides an overview of theoretically guided empirical studies in the domain of political ideology of ordinary people.