Calcium intake is associated with adiposity in Black and White men and White women of the HERITAGE Family Study
Loos, Ruth × Rankinen, Tuomo Leon, Arthur S Skinner, James S Wilmore, Jack H Rao, D C Bouchard, Claude #
The Journal of Nutrition vol:134 issue:7 pages:1772-8
Calcium (Ca(2+)) intake may play a role in the regulation of body weight. Increased Ca(2+) intake has been associated with lower body weight, BMI, and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies. We examined the association between Ca(2+) intake, derived from the Willett FFQ, and overall and abdominal adiposity in Black and White men and women of the HERITAGE Family Study. BMI, the percentage of body fat (%FAT), the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses, computerized tomography total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral (AVF) and abdominal subcutaneous (ASF) fat, and waist circumference were measured in 362 men (109 Blacks, 253 Whites) and 462 women (201 Blacks, 261 Whites). Subjects were divided into tertiles of energy-adjusted Ca(2+) intake. Adiposity measures across tertiles were compared by ANOVA and also regressed against the energy-adjusted Ca(2+) intake to test for a linear trend. The strongest inverse associations appeared in Black men and White women. Black men in the high Ca(2+) intake group were leaner than those in the low Ca(2+) intake group: BMI 23.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 26.7 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2) (P = 0.01); for all other adiposity measures, P < 0.05. In White women, regression analyses showed significant inverse associations between Ca(2+) intake and BMI (P = 0.02), %FAT (P = 0.001), TAF (P = 0.006), AVF (P = 0.03), and ASF (P = 0.01). The percentage of fat of White men in the highest Ca(2+) intake group was significantly lower than in the lowest Ca(2+) group (P = 0.04). No significant associations were found in Black women. Low Ca(2+) intake may be associated with higher adiposity, particularly in men and White women.