Journal of motor behavior vol:36 issue:1 pages:82-90
With their eyes initially on either the home, midline, or final end position, 30 participants practiced a 2-target aiming movement. After 120 acquisition trials, participants performed a retention test and were then transferred to each of the other 2 eye conditions. During acquisition, all groups improved over practice, but the home group showed the greatest improvement. The temporal improvement was most pronounced in the times spent after peak velocity. Retention and transfer tests indicated that participants performed best under eye-movement conditions that were the same as the 1 they had practiced in. There was also positive transfer of training between conditions in which the oculomotor information was similar. Thus, to optimize learning, one should practice under the same afferent and oculomotor conditions that will be required for the final performance.