Emulsifiers and OR Extruded Starch in the Production of Breads from Cassava
Defloor, I Degeest, C Schellekens, M Martens, A Delcour, Jan #
Cereal Chemistry vol:68 issue:4 pages:323-327
A nutritious breadlike product can be prepared from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) flour fortified with defatted soy flour (20%) by incorporation in the formula of either a viscosity-enhancing agent such as prehydrated extruded starch (12-15%) or surface-active materials such as self-emulsifying glyceryl monostearate (2-3%). The latter agent results in a greater air uptake at mixing, as exemplified by greater volumes at the end of the mixing stage, and both agents lead to improved gas retention during fermentation. Experimental data suggest that gas retention in the first phase of fermentation of cassava batters is influenced only to a small extent by the agents applied and that their action is based on a delay of the attainment of the critical buoyant size of the gas cells. Whereas the delay by the surface-active agent is based on the fact that more and smaller gas cells are formed during mixing, the effect of the pregelatinized material is due to a viscosity change, resulting in an increase of the critical buoyant size. During the baking phase, they influence the pasting properties of the starch and have a positive impact on the volume and crumb structure of the resulting products. Incorporation of surface-active material (4%) leads to a volume increase of 30%, whereas a much greater quantity of extruded starch (9-12%) is necessary to ensure a more modest volume increase (12%). At the same time, both the emulsifier and the extruded starch are responsible for good eating and keeping qualities.