Journal of Biomechanics vol:35 issue:5 pages:609-19
This paper describes the process used to generate lower limb kinematics during single limb stance phase of gait, using musculoskeletal modelling, muscle driven forward simulation and gradient based optimisation techniques (including design of experiment techniques).Initial inputs to the forward simulation process were the normalised quantified muscle activation patterns of 22 muscles, and the initial segmental configuration (both angles and angular velocity) derived from Winter (The biomechanics and motor control of human gait, 1987, University of Waterloo Press, pp. 1-72). Two distinct musculoskeletal models (one including 6 DOF, the other 7 DOF) were defined and a muscle driven forward simulation was implemented.A series of optimisation sequences then were executed to modify the muscle activation patterns and initial segmental configuration, until the system output of the forward simulation approximated the angle data reported by. The accuracy and effectiveness of the analysis sequence proposed and the model response obtained using two distinct musculoskeletal models were verified and analysed with respect to the kinesiology of normal walking.