1. Monocytic products, especially interleukin-1 (IL-1), play an important role in the acute-phase response. Prostaglandins have been shown to act as second messengers in several physiological alterations of the acute-phase response, such as fever, muscle wasting and immunoregulation. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of prostaglandins in the monocytic-product-induced stimulation of the hepatic synthesis of fibrinogen, a well-known acute-phase protein. 2. Prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 did not stimulate fibrinogen synthesis and fibrinogen polypeptide mRNA content when administered intraperitoneally to rats or when added to monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes. 3. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors did not abolish the stimulation of fibrinogen synthesis and its mRNA content induced by monocytic products in vivo or in vitro. 4. These findings indicate that the enhanced synthesis of fibrinogen induced by monocytic products (including IL-1) during the acute-phase response is not mediated by prostaglandins or other products of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid.