Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:270 issue:40 pages:23293-9
Cellular responses initiated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are mediated by two different cell surface receptors with respective molecular masses of 55 kDa (p55) and 75 kDa (p75). p55 is functional in almost every cell type and can independently transmit most biological activities of TNF. In contrast, TNF signaling via p75 seems so far largely restricted to cells of lymphoid origin, where it can induce proliferation, cytokine production, and/or apoptosis. The mechanisms that regulate TNF receptor activity are largely unknown. Here we report that the p75 of unstimulated p75-responsive PC60 T cells is phosphorylated on serine by a kinase activity present in p75 immune complexes. Several lines of evidence indicate that the latter kinase is casein kinase-1 (CK-1). Previous results have shown that the p75 TNF receptor is constitutively phosphorylated in vivo. Our data show that the latter in vivo phosphorylation is also at least partially due to CK-1. Pretreatment of cells with TNF had no detectable effect on p75 phosphorylation in vitro or in vivo. However, a specific CK-1 inhibitor potentiated TNF-induced apoptosis mediated by p75, suggesting an inhibitory role for phosphorylation by CK-1. Although in vivo p75 phosphorylation could be seen in both p75-unresponsive and p75-responsive cell lines, in vitro p75 phosphorylation in p75 coimmunoprecipitates could not be observed in cell lines that were biologically unresponsive to p75 stimulation. The latter observation further indicates a regulatory role for p75 phosphorylation in p75-mediated signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the p75 TNF receptor is phosphorylated and associated with CK-1, which negatively regulates p75-mediated TNF signaling.