In this positron emission tomography investigation of human nonverbal visual memory, we determined the anatomical distribution of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) reflecting familiarity of visual shapes. All stimuli consisted of relatively simple, abstract outlines generated by Fourier expansions. Subjects performed the same task twice, once using unfamiliar and once using familiar stimuli. The task was a modified version of delayed nonmatching-to-sample, consisting of one sample presentation prior to tracer injection and a sequence of test trials during which images were acquired. When this task was performed with familiar instead of unfamiliar stimuli, only decreases in rCBF were observed, which were localized to the left lateral anterior temporal neocortex, the left medial temporal pole, and the rostral anterior cingulate. The correlates of familiarity measured in this human brain mapping experiment may correspond with what has been measured in single neurons in monkeys. This correspondence holds both for the type and for the localization of changes.