The present essay reviews a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies conducted in parallel in humans and awake monkeys, concentrating on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). MR responses to a range of visual stimuli indicate that the human IPS contains more functional regions along its anterior-posterior extent than are known in the monkey. Human IPS includes four motion sensitive regions, ventral IPS (VIPS), parieto-occipital IPS (POIPS), dorsal IPS medial (DIPSM) and dorsal IPS anterior (DIPSA), which are also sensitive to three-dimensional structure from motion (3D SFM). On the other hand, the monkey IPS contains only one motion sensitive area (VIP), which is not particularly sensitive to 3D SFM. The human IPS includes four regions sensitive to two-dimensional shape and three representations of central vision, while monkey IPS appears to contain only two shape sensitive regions and one central representation. These data support the hypothesis that monkey LIP corresponds to the region of human IPS between DIPSM and POIPS and that a portion of the anterior part of human IPS is evolutionarily new. This additional cortical tissue may provide the capacity for an enhanced visual analysis of moving images necessary for sophisticated control of manipulation and tool handling.