The ventricle-brain ratio (VBR) of 42 chronic schizophrenic patients was compared with that of 42 age-matched medical controls. For the schizophrenics, the relationship of various clinical parameters to the VBR was assessed, and the outcome of 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with either risperidone or haloperidol. The results confirm that schizophrenic patients have slightly enlarged lateral ventricles compared with medical controls. Only for schizophrenics, an effect of age, but not of duration of illness, was noticed. This study does not support the validity of a clinical subdivision of chronic schizophrenic patients on the basis of the VBR. Neither negative, positive nor general psychopathological symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), were related to the VBR, nor were abnormal involuntary movements or extrapyramidal symptoms. No association between season of birth or a family history of major mental disorder and VBR could be demonstrated. Treatment response was predicted by the total PANSS score and the PANSS general psychopathology subscale score at baseline. There was a trend for patients with higher VBR to have a more or haloperidol). or haloperidol).