Thirteen native Ecuadorian indigenous nationalities follow the Intercultural Bilingual Education Model in Ecuador (MOSEIB). This paper analyses MOSEIB´s present situation, challenges and future prospects. First, in order to understand how MOSEIB today gives an answer to the intercultural tensions of the past, it is necessary to make a historical reconstruction of Ecuadorian education. Second, in order to explore the particular characteristics of the MOSEIB model and the challenges of implementing intercultural education in non intercultural societies, we ask how and to what extent the intercultural education policies and practices in Ecuador differ from those developed in other Latin American countries. Third, we take up a consideration of curricular diversification seeking to clarify how MOSEIB curricula relate to the reality of the Kichwa indigenous nationality and its communal environment, rituals and agricultural schedules. We conclude with comments on future prospects and remaining challenges toward the establishment of a truly intercultural society inside a multicultural country.