Short-term follow-up angiographic evaluation of renal artery stenoses treated by means of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed in 89 patients with 108 treated stenoses, at a mean of 5.9 months +/- 6.7 after the procedure. In 72 patients intravenous digital subtraction angiography was performed; in 17 patients intraarterial digital subtraction angiography was performed. Indications for the study were (a) routine follow-up in 31 patients, (b) residual hypertension in 16, (c) residual stenosis on the postdilation angiogram (with residual hypertension) in 17, and (d) relapse of hypertension in 25. In 16 of the 25 patients (64%) with relapse of hypertension, angiography showed relapse of stenosis or occlusion of the vessel. In nine of the 17 patients (53%) with residual stenosis on the postdilation angiogram, an improvement in the angiographic appearance of the lesion was noted. Residual stenosis was noted in one normotensive patient, in three patients with residual hypertension, and in eight patients with residual stenosis on the postdilation angiogram.