Journal of Fish Biology vol:60 issue:5 pages:1252-1266
In a study of the genetic structure of Clarias gariepinus at the ND5 and ND6 loci of mitochondrial DNA using RFLP-PCR in 16 populations (267 fish), a total of 18 haplotypes was detected. The most common haplotype was EA1 and represented 46%, of all genotypes. Three phylogenetic groups characterized the region, with the East African clade occurring between the western rift in the west, Lake Baringo in the north, the Indian Ocean in the east and the Rufiji River in the south. The Lower Tana River (unlike the Upper Tana River) and Lake Kamnarok grouped with the North clade, while the Ruaha River (tributary of the Rtlfiji River) represented a contact zone between the East and the South-central African clade. Genetic structure was distinct (F-ST=0.66), with the Lower Tana River and Lake Mtera forming specific units. Within the East clade, the Oloibortoto River, Upper Tana River and Lake Victoria each formed a distinct population. Lake Baringo grouped either with the eastern rift or the western rift depending on the analysis. Lake Jipe, the Pangani River, Rusizi River, Lake Edward, Nyabugogo River and the Luiche River clustered together. Among group variance explained 66.8%, of the total variance; the impact of vicariance (rifting and uplifting) on the phylogeography was considerable. A distribution model of the catfish is proposed which combines the separation by rifting several million years ago with a high gene flow in the western rift due to historical connectivity among lakes and rivers. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.