American journal of ophthalmology vol:142 issue:6 pages:970-5
PURPOSE: To describe polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a complication of tilted disk syndrome and high myopia with staphyloma. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: This report was a multicenter evaluation of six patients (eight eyes) with tilted disk syndrome or high myopia that was complicated by posterior staphyloma. Complete ophthalmic examination that included fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) was performed in all patients. RESULTS: All patients had macular abnormalities and visual loss. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed typical features of tilted disk syndrome (five patients; six eyes) or high myopia (one patient; two eyes) with staphyloma that was associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. OCT and ICG-A confirmed the presence of polypoidal dilations in the choroid. Seven eyes were treated with laser photocoagulation or verteporfin-photodynamic therapy (V-PDT), although one eye did not require treatment. Visual acuity at the final visit had improved in three eyes, deteriorated in three eyes, and remained unchanged in two eyes. CONCLUSION: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is a potential cause of visual loss in tilted disk syndrome and high myopia. We postulate that choroidal abnormalities at the border of staphylomas induce blood-flow disturbances that are similar to those disturbances that are observed in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, which is another condition that occasionally is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. The pathogenesis remains unclear, and further study is required to better understand the formation of choroidal polypoidal dilations in these conditions.