Thalamotomy and electrical stimulation of a thalamic target as treatment for persistent pain are discussed. Thalamotomy is only rarely performed these days according to a questionnaire, given to some colleagues, about the type and the number of operations they performed in the years 1984, 1985 and 1986. The need for stimulation in the periventricular or periaqueductal grey for nociceptive pain is decreasing due to the advent of intraspinal and intraventricular administration of opioids. Nowadays medial and lateral ventro-posterior thalamic nuclei are frequently stimulated for treatment of deafferentation pain. Of 36 patients with deafferentation pain, 22 initially had benefit from this stimulation, but long-term success was only achieved in 11 (30%) of them. It was a general trend that the patients with an initial high pain relief score obtained the best long-term results.