The intestine has long been seen as a "forbidden" organ to transplant. This is because the first attempts at Intestinal Transplantation (ITx) were defeated by rejection, technical problems, infection and graft versus host disease. Results of ITx have improved in the short-term (70 to 80% 1-year patient survival) but remain inferior to other solid organ transplants in the long-term (5 years patient survival of 50% or less). Reasons for this difference between intestine and other organ transplants are reviewed. Development of immunomodulatory protocols - e.g. protocols aiming at reducing the rejection response and facilitating engraftment - are described. Our center experience with a consecutive series of five intestinal transplants utilizing a new protolerogenic protocol and low immunosuppression is described. At time of writing, these five patients are rejection-free, nutritionally independent and lead a normal life.