Five types of personality continuity in childhood and adolescence
De Fruyt, Filip × Bartels, Meike Van Leeuwen, Karla De Clercq, Barbara Decuyper, Mieke Mervielde, Ivan #
Amer psychological assoc/educational publishing foundation
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol:91 issue:3 pages:538-552
This study examines 5 types of personality continuity-structural, mean-level, individual-level, differential, and ipsative-in a representative population (N = 498) and a twin and sibling sample (N = 548) of children and adolescents. Parents described their children on 2 successive occasions with a 36-month interval using the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (I. Mervielde & F. De Fruyt, 1999). There was evidence for structural continuity in the 2 samples, and personality was shown to be largely differentially stable. A large percentage had a stable trait profile indicative of ipsative stability, and mean-level personality changes were generally small in magnitude. Continuity findings were explained mainly by genetic and nonshared environmental factors.