Schizophrenia generates a great deal of cost and burden. The aim of this study was to assess the direct costs for schizophrenia patients receiving standard treatment in different settings in Belgium. Costs were calculated for patients and for the Belgian insurance system. Data from Belgium's largest sickness fund were used to estimate health expenditures for all schizophrenia patients in Belgium. The mean direct treatment cost was $12,050 per patient per year, or $304 million for all schizophrenia patients per year. This cost constitutes 1.9 percent of the Belgian Government's total health expenditure. Government expenditure per schizophrenia patient is 10 times that of an average citizen.