Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation vol:16 issue:2 pages:251-7
Left vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) by means of an implanted electrode has proven to reduce seizure frequency in epileptic patients with medically refractory seizures. This technique is now widely applied over the world. Voice changes appear to be one of the major side effects. The morphodynamic changes in the larynx and the acoustic impacts have been analyzed in detail in 7 implanted patients. Basic vagus stimulation is well tolerated. Extra stimulation induces an adductory spasm of either the ipsilateral vocal fold or the vestibular fold. The result, when the patient phonates, consists of a slight increase of F0 as well as a moderate increase of random period perturbation, but there is no evidence for the occurrence of "bifurcations." Further, as the glottic closure remains sufficient, there is no increase in turbulent noise. The lack of increase in turbulent noise and the lack of "bifurcations" appears to clearly differentiate a spasmodic contraction of the vocal cord from a unilateral vocal fold paralysis.